Translational Endocrinology & Metabolism: Neoplasia

Assesses the latest research using molecular and cellular biology in the biology of endocrine neoplasia and the advances leading to earlier diagnoses and improved treatments.

December 2011, Guest Editor: Rajesh V. Thakker

Target Audience

This continuing medical education activity should be of substantial interest to endocrinologists, internists, family practitioners, and other health care professionals who care for patients with age-related endocrinopathies.

Learning Objectives

Upon completion of this enduring material, learners will be able to:

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1)

  • Recognize the complex clinical manifestations of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) Discuss the value of current and emerging (MEN1) therapies
  • Evaluate the role of genetic testing and its utility in facilitating screening for the development of MEN1-associated tumors

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2

  • Recognize the clinical features and pathogenesis of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 syndromes
  • Describe the development of targeted therapies for patients with progressive, metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma in the context of multiple endocrine neoplasia 2 syndromes

Tumor-Induced Osteomalacia

  • List the most frequent causes of hypophosphatemia and utilize sensitive and specific diagnostic testing available for this biochemical abnormality
  • Perform a differential diagnosis of conditions associated with hypophosphatemia
  • Determine the optimum approach to the diagnosis and treatment of tumor-induced osteomalacia

Gastro-enteropancreatic (GEP) Tumors

  • Discuss the pathogenesis and presentation of the most important types of neuroendocrine tumors and
  • Identify circumstances in which neuroendocrine tumors should be suspected
  • Evaluate the benefits and limitations of currently available therapies for neuroendocrine tumors


  • Describe the epidemiology, pathophysiology and clinical effects of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma
  • Recognize the physical signs and symptoms of pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas,
  • Differentiate between the different genetic syndromes related to pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma
  • Select the appropriate biochemical and imaging tests to establish the diagnosis for typical and atypical presentation of pheochromocytomas
  • Employ current practice methods in the treatment of pheochromocytomas.
  • Evaluate the current molecular research that contributes to the treatment of pheochromocytomas

Hypercalcemia of Malignancy

  • Identify the pathophysiology of malignancy associated hypercalcemia
  • Interpret the roles of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and cytokines such as interleukins and prostaglandins
  • Assess the appropriate use of established therapies for the treatment of malignancy-associate hypercalcemia

Additional Information

Target Audience: 
Clinical researcher
Scientific researcher
Nurse/Nurse practitioner
Physician assistant
Allied health professional
Competency Area: 
Patient Care and Procedural Skills
Medical Knowledge
Topic Area: 
General Endocrinology
Level of Outcomes: 
Level 1 (Participation)
Level 2 (Satisfaction)
Level 3A (Learning: Declarative Knowledge (Knows))
Level 3B (Learning: Procedural Knowledge (Knows How))
Activity summary
Available credit: 
  • 8.00 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits
  • 8.00 CME Certificate of Participation
Course opens: 
Course expires: 

Disclosure Information

Authors, editors, reviewers, Endocrine Society staff and others involved in planning this CME activity are required to disclose to learners any relevant financial relationship(s) that have occurred within the last 12 months with any commercial interest(s) whose products or services are discussed in the CME content. Such relationships are defined by remuneration in any amount from the commercial interest(s) in the form of grants; research support; consulting fees; salary; ownership interest (e.g., stocks, stock options, or ownership interest excluding diversified mutual funds); honoraria or other payments for participation in speakers’ bureaus, advisory boards, or boards of directors; or other financial benefits. The intent of this disclosure is not to prevent faculty with relevant financial relationships from planning or delivery of content, but rather to provide learners with information that allows them to make their own judgments. It remains for learners to determine whether financial interests or relationships may influence the educational activity with regard to exposition or conclusion. The Endocrine Society has reviewed all disclosures and resolved or managed all identified conflicts of interest, as applicable.

The following faculty reported relevant financial relationships or conflicts of interest:

Robert F. Gagel, MD, is a consultant for Astra Zeneca, Ashley B. Grossman is a lecturer for Ipsen and Novartis, Theresa A. Guise, MD is a speaker for Amgen and Roche, and owns Amgen stock,

The following faculty had nothing to disclose:

Maralyn Druce, MA, MBBS, MRCP, PhD, Andrew L. Folpe, MD, MD, , Mimi I. Hu, MD, Dennis J. Joseph, MD, Gregory Kaltsas, MD FRCP, Hun Soo Kim, MD, PhD, Rajiv Kumar, MD, Brian P. Mullan, MD, and Rajesh V. Thakker, MD, FRCP, FRCPath, FMedSci

The Editor-in-Chief, Paul Robertson, MD, has nothing to disclose.

Endocrine Society staff and the medical writer, Patricia Stephens, PhD, associated with the development of content for this educational activity reported no relevant financial relationships.

Policy on Unlabeled/Off-Label Use

The Endocrine Society has determined that disclosure of unlabeled/off-label or investigational use of commercial products is informative for audiences and therefore requires this information to be disclosed to the learners at the beginning of the presentation.

Uses of specific therapeutic agents, devices, and other products discussed in this educational activity may not be the same as those indicated in product labeling approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The Endocrine Society requires that any discussions of such “off-label” use be based on scientific research that conforms to generally accepted standards of experimental design, data collection, and data analysis. Before recommending or prescribing any therapeutic agent or device, learners should review the complete prescribing information, including indications, contraindications, warnings, precautions, and adverse events.


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Acknowledgement of Commercial Support

This activity is not supported by grants or other funds from any commercial supporter.


Available Credit

  • 8.00 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits
  • 8.00 CME Certificate of Participation